I have three virtual machines exhibiting the same behavior. They are VMware VMs. Are you using the VMware Paravirtual SCSI driver? I am on all three of these VMs and the recovery-thing Command Prompt was not originally able to find my virtual HDD. I added a virtual LSI Logic SCSI adapter and moved the vHDD to it, and now the recovery-thing Command Prompt is able to see the data (C: is the Recovery partition, D: is my normal C: drive) but they are still unable to boot. The various safe mode, recovery modes, etc unfortunately do nothing.
Unfortunately I have no fix for you, but wanted to share a little about my environment and the troubleshooting I’ve done thus far in case we can figure out a solve.