I’ll be away from my server until Monday, but my first thoughts would be to either right-click the Console shortcut, hit the Compatibility tab, and try the “Change high DPI settings” option.
My second would be to open Internet Explorer and see whether any changes to font sizes or settings there have an effect. Most of the Console is run as embedded IE objects so there may be some benefit to tuning there.
The Console has some font size settings under File->Preferences, but I think they only apply to ActionScript and Relevance editing windows.
(and…if you haven’t checked much into WebUI yet, it’s a good time to start.)