The files for KB4484237 are:
Any Office 2010 update whose filename contains “kb2428677” in front is meant for installs that have had KB2428677 installed.
In the past when Microsoft published bulletins in the form of MSYY- (ie: MS16-133), they would include an FAQ section to clarify this.
For instance, from the MS16-133 bulletin: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/security-updates/securitybulletins/2016/ms16-133#update-faq
I have Microsoft Word 2010 installed. Why am I not being offered the 3127951 update?
The 3127951 update only applies to systems running specific configurations of Microsoft Office 2010. Some configurations will not be offered the update.
This special configuration is “KB2428677”.
Look at the filename for KB3127951 and you will notice that is has that same kb number prepended to the front.
You will find the same with any other older bulletin which contained Office 2010 updates that are targeted at installs that have KB2428677.
Of course, MS is no longer adding this FAQ but the same deal applies and you can determine this by looking at the filename.